The GOESP Spacecraft Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)P

The GOESP Spacecraft Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)P

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The GOES-P Spacecraft
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Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-P represents
a continuation of the newest generation of environmental satellites
built by Boeing  for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) under the technical guidance and project
management of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. GOES
satellites provide the familiar weather pictures seen on United States
television newscasts every day. The GOES imaging and sounding
instruments (built by ITT) feature flexible scans for small-scale area
viewing in regions of the visible and infrared spectrum allowing
meteorologists to improve short-term forecasts. GOES provides nearly
continuous imaging and sounding, which allow forecasters to better
measure changes in atmospheric temperature and moisture distributions
and hence increase the accuracy of their forecasts. GOES environmental
information is used for a host of applications, including weather
monitoring and prediction models, ocean temperatures and moisture
locations, climate studies, cryosphere (ice, snow, glaciers) detection
and extent, land temperatures and crop conditions, and hazards
detection. The GOES-O&P Imagers have improved resolution in the 13
micrometer channel from 8 km to 4 km. The finer spatial resolution
allows an improved cloud-top product, height of atmospheric motion
vectors and volcanic ash detection. GOES-P continues the improved
image navigation and registration, additional power and fuel lifetime
capability, space weather, solar x-ray imaging, search and rescue, and
communication services as provided on GOES-13&14 (formerly GOES-N&O).
On January 28, 1998, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) awarded a contract to Hughes Space and
Communications (now Boeing), in El Segundo, California, for the
manufacture, launch and delivery on-orbit of up to four advanced
environmental monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental
Satellites (GOES) and delivery of associated ground system elements.
The procurement of the GOES-N Series was an extension of a program
designed to primarily provide continuous monitoring of the Earth’s
weather systems and the near earth space environment. The new
spacecraft of the GOES-N Series will be used to continue and enhance
the environmental monitoring and communications functions of the
GOES-I thru M (GOES-8 thru 12) series of NOAA operational spacecraft.
The basic contract provided for two spacecraft, GOES-N & O. NOAA
decided to only exercise the option for a third GOES-P satellite with
all three using the expendable launch vehicle Delta IV (4,2) with two
solids for additional on orbit fuel savings. The first satellite,
GOES-N (now called GOES-13 in orbit) was successfully commercially
launched by Boeing, with a Federal Aviation Administration launch
license on May 24, 2006. GOES-O was successfully launch on June 27,
2009 and accepted by NOAA on December 14, 2009. GOES-P will carry
government furnished ITT built Imager and Sounder instruments to
provide regular measurements of the Earth’s atmosphere, cloud cover,
ocean temperatures, and land surfaces. GOES-P has a government
furnished Solar X-ray Imager built by Lockheed Martin of Palo Alto,
CA. Space Environment Monitor instruments were part of the Boeing
spacecraft contract and were built by Science Applications
International Corporation (built the magnetometers) in Columbia,
Maryland, and Assurance Technology Corporation (formerly GE
Panametrics) in Carlisle, Massachusetts. Assurance Technology built
the high energy, electron, and proton particle sensors and the new
extreme ultraviolet solar monitoring instrument. Significant portions
of the GOES-NOP Series satellite support ground system are provided by
Integral Systems, Inc., of Lanham, Maryland.
GOES-P was shipped to Cape Canaveral on December 7, 2009, by a USAF
C-17 aircraft and will be processed at the Astrotech Space Operations,
Inc. facility in Titusville, Florida. GOES-P will be processed for
launch similar to how GOES-N&O were. GOES-N&O were transported to the
Delta IV Space Launch Complex 37B and hoisted and mated to the Delta
IV as shown in the photo gallery images at this web site.
The multimission GOES-N Series of satellites will be a vital
contributor to weather, solar, and space operations and future science
improvements with weather prediction and remote sensing. The GOES-N
Series will aid severe storm warnings, resource management, search and
rescue, emergency managers, and likely lead to additional advances in
environmental sciences and multifaceted data applications of remotely
sensed phenomena. GOES-NOP data will add to the global climate change
databases of knowledge, embracing many civil and government
environmental forecasting organizations that work to benefit people
everywhere and help protect lives and property every day.
An advanced attitude control system using star trackers, a spacecraft
optical bench, and improved Imager and Sounder mountings provides
enhanced instrument pointing performance for improved image navigation
and registration to better locate severe storms and other events
important to the NOAA National Weather Service and all of us. NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the NOAA National Environmental
Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) have set a higher
standard of location accuracy for the GOES-N Series, including data
picture element (pixel) location to approximately two kilometers from
geosynchronous orbit of about 35,780 km (22,233 miles) above the
Earth’s surface. For more information on the GOES-13 improvements to
image navigation and registration (INR) being achieved refer to the
paper at the following web site:
http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/135921.pdf .  This paper reports
that GOES-13 image navigation and registration performance is “more
than 100% improved over the previous generation of GOES satellites and
very close to next generation (GOES R) performance specifications”. A
movie loop comparison between GOES-12 and GOES-13 is found at the web
site: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2006/12. A
comparison there of visible channel images centered over northeastern
Minnesota on December 25, 2006, shows the improvement in navigation
accuracy with the new GOES-13 satellite. Surface features (such as
frozen/snow-covered interior lakes, and the Lake Superior shoreline)
appear to have significantly less image-to-image movement on GOES-13
versus GOES-12. This improved navigation will allow for better
accuracy of satellite products such as satellite derived winds or
atmospheric motion vectors.
The GOES-NOP enhanced INR quality of service is further improved by
the integrated systems ability to operate through eclipses and
improved recovery after station-keeping maneuvers and yaw flips.
GOES-13 Imager and Sounder NOAA science testing was conducted in 2006
and a NESDIS Technical Report is available from the following web
site: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/goes-n/. GOES-14
science testing was completed on January 4, 2010 and some results are
posted at the following web site:
http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/goes-o/.
Imager
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The Serial Number 10 GOES-P Imager satisfies the NOAA primary mission
imagery requirements and was built and tested at ITT in Fort Wayne,
Indiana. It is similar to the GOES-O Imager and was delivered to
Boeing by NASA/GSFC and integrated onto GOES-P. Like the GOES-O Imager
the SN10 Imager has evolutionary improvements incorporated to reduce
single point failures; improve launch vehicle environments
flexibility; added thermal shields to the secondary mirror structure
to remove health and safety concerns relating to scanning operations
during eclipse periods; and takes advantage of cooler operational set
points for infrared detectors provided by the spacecraft accommodation
clearer view of and improved thermal radiation to space. The Imager
blackbody dwell time increased from 0.2 to 2 seconds as compared to
the GOES-12 Imager and this helps reduce potential image striping. The
GOES-O/14 and GOES-P Imagers have improved resolution in the 13
micrometer channel from 8 km to 4 km. This finer spatial resolution
allows an improved cloud-top product, height of atmospheric motion
vectors and volcanic ash detection.
Sounder
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The Serial Number 10 GOES-P Sounder was built and tested at ITT in
Fort Wayne, Indiana and satisfies the NOAA atmospheric sounding
multi-spectral mission visible and infrared sensing requirements. It
was delivered to Boeing by NASA/GSFC and integrated onto GOES-P. The
GOES-NOP Sounders have likewise incorporated low risk evolutionary
improvements to improve channel to channel coregistration; add thermal
shields to the secondary mirror structure to remove health and safety
concerns relating to scanning operations during eclipse periods;
reduce single point failures; improve launch vehicle environments
flexibility; and take advantage of cooler operational set points for
infrared detectors provided by the spacecraft accommodation clearer
view of and improved thermal radiation to space.
Solar X-ray Imager
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The GOES-NOP Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) contract was awarded in 1997 to
Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, California
for two firm flight models with options and associated ground support
equipment and services. Three units have been successfully delivered
and integrated for flight on the GOES-NOP Series of spacecraft. The
first official GOES-13 SXI image was taken on July 6, 2006, and is
located at this web site. The GOES-13 SXI experienced an anomaly on
December 5, 2006, after looking at a strong solar flare longer than
recommended. An exceptionally active solar region 930 rotated onto the
solar disk at a time when solar cycle 23 was theoretically approaching
minimum levels. On December 5, 2006, at 10:18 UT region 930 generated
an X9 flare. Region 930 continued to generate flares over the ensuing
two weeks and resultant ion storms were also recorded by GOES. The
GOES-13 SXI sustained damage to several pixels of its CCD detector
while observing this X9 flare event. The source of the damage was the
large X-ray flux of the flare convolved with the observing sequence.
The susceptibility of the SXI CCD detector to radiation damage was not
well understood or adequately operationally constrained. Eight lines
of pixels across the CCD are damaged and are unlikely to fully
recover. Operational constraints and updates to on-board observing
sequence software will enable the SXI to continue its mission without
further damage to its detector. The impact on observations and
predictions is being assessed as new sequence software and operational
constraints are developed. Ground algorithms will be developed to
minimize the appearance of the 'lost' lines through interpolation or
other means. Corrective actions have been implemented in operational
constraints and automated fault protection software is being developed
to prevent such an anomaly from occurring in the future and extend the
life of the SXI CCD detector arrays. For further information contact
Dr. Steven Hill ([email protected]) with NOAA's Space Weather
Prediction Center or see SXI solar images at
http://sxi.ngdc.noaa.gov/sxi_greatest.html.
The GOES-13 SXI entrance filter is degrading in orbit and an improved
entrance filter design was developed for GOES-O&P, but the GOES-14
performance has been less than expected and light leaks are
developing.
Space Environment Monitor
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The main GOES-NOP Space Environment Monitor (SEM) subcontract was
awarded by Boeing in 1998 to GE Panametrics (now Assurance Technology
Corporation) in Waltham, Massachusetts. The contract includes
instrument packages to be flown on each of the spacecraft in the
series and includes in situ measurements of the magnetic and particle
environments as well as remote measurement of the integrated X-ray
emission and the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of the Sun. These
units have all been delivered and integrated for flight on the
GOES-NOP spacecraft. The two GOES-P magnetometers were provided by
Boeing subcontract to Science Applications International Corporation
(SAIC) in Columbia, Maryland. To provide stable magnetic field
measurements independent of the spacecraft field, dual magnetometers
are near the end of a deployable boom that is more than 8 meters long.
The GOES-13X-ray Sensor (XRS) appropriately responded to the M2 level
solar flare that was observed on July 6, 2006, but on November 5,
2006, experienced an intermittent failure and may be due to a random
part failure. That same suspect part is not used in the GOES-14&P XRS
instruments plus additional confidence testing has been done to better
assure adequate part reliability.
Launch and Orbit Raising
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GOES-O was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch
Complex (SLC) 37B on a Boeing Delta IV (4,2) using a 4 meter fairing
common booster core configuration, with two solid strap on motors, on
June 27, 2009. The GOES-P Delta IV should be erected at launch pad 37B
on January13, 2010, and the two solid rockets will be attached the
following week. The use of the Delta IV upper stage Pratt & Whitney
supplied RL10B engine performing a third burn to get to orbit will
save fuel on the spacecraft, and help achieve at least 13.5 years of
fuel lifetime (nominally 5 years of on orbit storage and 5 years of
operations). A series of spacecraft liquid apogee motor (LAM) firings
will be done to bring the spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit of
approximately 22,233 miles (35,780 km).  The solar array will be fully
deployed as will the magnetometer boom, Imager and Sounder optical
port covers and cooler doors, and the SXI. GOES-P is expected to go
through a similar launch and orbit raising plan.
 
After successful post-launch checkout near 90 degrees west longitude
by a coordinated Boeing, NASA, NOAA, GOES-P integrated Government and
Industry team, from the NOAA Satellite Operations Control Center
(SOCC) at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) in Suitland,
Maryland, the satellite will be placed in an on-orbit storage mode
near 105 degrees west longitude so that it can more rapidly replace a
failure of any of the other operational GOES.
GOES N,O,P Enhancement Summary
• GOES N,O,P will have an improved Image Navigation and Registration
(INR)
system that will use star trackers to provide precision image
navigation and
registration information for use with the Imaging and Sounding data
products. This
will improve knowledge of exactly where severe weather events are
located.
• A stable optical bench has been provided to isolate the thermal
deformations of the
spacecraft from the Imager and Sounder instruments.
• A data product improvement has been provided with the development of
the digital
Low Rate Image Information Transmission (LRIT) system for distribution
of data
Products that were distributed in an analog WEFAX format in the
previous
generation of GOES satellites. The LRIT system will permit the
transmission of
many data products consistent with the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO)
and will permit the distribution of more National Weather Service
(NWS)
information at a higher data rate to the NOAA data user community.
• The Data Collection System (DCS) has been enhanced with the addition
of 300 and
1200 bps Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) that will use 8-PSK
modulation and a
higher power satellite transponder so that more DCPs can use the link
at the same
time.
• The power subsystem has been improved with the use of a single panel
solar array
that contains high-efficiency dual-junction gallium-arsenide solar
cells. A nickel-
hydrogen battery is provided to permit the satellites to operate
during the eclipse
periods.
• A new Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) has been developed by the Lockheed
Martin
Advanced Technology Center to permit the observation and collection of
solar data
products.
• A dedicated transponder is being provided to support the Emergency
Manager’s
Weather Information Network (EMWIN) data product service.
• The Satellite design life time has been improved from 7 to 10 years,
and the
expected propellant lifetime has been increased to 13.5 years.
• The GOES-N,O,P command data rate has been increased to 2,000 bps, as
compared
to a data rate of 250 bps for the previous generation of GOES
satellites.
• The GOES-N,O,P telemetry data rate has been improved to provide data
at either
4,000 or 1,000 bps, as compared to the 2,000 bps data rate on the
previous
generation of GOES satellites.
• An optional operational “yaw flip” capability and procedure has been
developed on
the GOES-N,O,P Program to permit optimum performance of the Imager and
Sounder radiation coolers. The procedure will permit operation of the
Imager and
Sounder detectors at a lower temperature and will result in lower
noise performance
of the instruments because of a lower detector temperature.
• The Space Environment Monitoring (SEM) subsystem has been enhanced
by the
addition of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) sensor, Energetic Proton,
Electron, and
Alpha particle Detector (EPEAD), the Magnetospheric Electron Detector
(MAGED), the Magnetospheric Proton Detector (MAGPD) and dual
magnetometers on a 27.9 foot (8.5 meter) long boom. The EPS sensors
have been
expanded on GOES-N,O,P to provide coverage over an extended energy
range and
with improved directional accuracy.
• The communications services have been tailored to comply with modern
national
and international requirements.
• Potential reduction in striping in the image will be achieved due to
increasing the
Imager’s scan-mirror dwell time during the blackbody calibration
process from 0.2
seconds to 2 seconds.
• Health and safety concerns related to scanning operations during
eclipse periods
have been removed because thermal shields have been added to the
secondary
mirror structure elements for the Imager and Sounder instruments.
• There will be no “boom snap” problems on the GOES-N,O,P satellites
since the
effect is due to the shadow of the magnetometer boom crossing the
solar sail boom
and the solar sail boom is not used with the GOES-N,O,P satellite
design.
Additional GOES-N Series Satellite Information
The linked PDF document titled “NOAA GOES-NOP -- The Next Generation”
contains more top level information on the GOES history, mission,
services, payloads, and GOES-NOP improvements. The “GOES-N Data Book”
has more spacecraft and mission detailed information and is also
available in PDF from this web site above for download or downloaded
by section from the outstanding GOES Project Science web site at:
http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/text/goes.databookn.html. If more timely
information is needed, the NOAA GOES Program Manager, is Steve Kirkner
at 301-286-1943 (email: [email protected]) and the NOAA GOES-N
Series Technical Acquisition Manager is Thomas M. Wrublewski at
301-286-3119 (email: [email protected]).
GOES-P Launch Significant Notional Milestones:
Mission Readiness Review (MRR)                          Launch minus
47 days
Encapsulate Spacecraft                                            
Launch minus 26 days
Delta IV Wet Dress Rehearsal                                  Launch
minus 20 days
Transport Spacecraft to Launch Pad 37B                 Launch minus 18
days
Flight Readiness Review (FRR)                               Launch
minus 5 days
Launch Readiness Review (LRR)                           Launch minus 1
day