SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT A Bibliography Of

SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT A Bibliography Of

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SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT
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A Bibliography of the International Human Rights/ Humanitarian Law
Project
By Allyson A. Gould
I. SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT: GENERAL AND HISTORICAL
A. TREATIES:
1. Charter of the United Nations, June 26, 1945, 59 Stat. 1031, T.S.
No. 993, 3 Bevans 1153, entered into force October 24, 1945. (Articles
1, 8, 55)
2. Charter of the International Military Tribunal (IMT), Agreement for
the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the
European Axis (London Agreement), August 8, 1945, 8 U.N.T.S. 279, 59
Stat. 1544, 8AS No. 472. (Article 6)
3. Control Council Law No. 10, Punishment of Persons Guilty of War
Crimes, Crimes Against Peace and Against Humanity, December 20, 1945,
3 Official Gazette Control Council for Germany 50-55 (1946). (Article
II)
4. International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Proclaimed at
Tokyo, January 19, 1946 and amended April 26, 1946, TIAS No. 1589,
entered into force January 19, 1946.
5. United Nations General Assembly Resolution in Affirmation of the
Principles of International Law Recognized by the Charter of Nuremburg
Tribunal, December 11, 1946, U.N. Doc. A/64/Add.1 (1946).
6. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217 A(III), U.N.
Doc. A/180 at 71 (1948). (Articles 2, 7, 25)
7. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
Genocide, 78 U.N.T.S. 277, entered into force December 9, 1948.
(Article III)
8. Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75
U.N.T.S. 135, August 12, 1949. (Articles 3, 76, 126)
9. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in
Time of War, 75 U.N.T.S. 287, August 12, 1949. (Articles 3, 76, 126)
10. Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic of Persons and the
Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, G.A. Res. 317 (IV),
December 2, 1949.
11. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. Res.
2200 (XXI), U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), entered into force March 23,
1976. (Articles 2, 3, 14, 16, 24, 26)
12. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,
G.A. Res. 2200A (XXI), U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), entered into force
January 3, 1976. (Articles 2, 3, 10, 12)
13. Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to
War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, entered into force November
11, 1970, U.N. Res. 2391 (XXIII) of 26 November 1968.
14. Principles of International Co-operation in the Detection, Arrest,
Extradition and Punishment of Persons Guilty of War Crimes and Crimes
Against Humanity, U.N. Res. 3074 (XXVIII), December 3, 1973.
15. Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency
and Armed Conflict, 29 U.N. GAOR Supp. No.31 at 146, U.N. Doc. A/8631
(1974).
16. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,
and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed
Conflicts, U.N.T.S. No. 17513, vol. 1125, p. 609, 1977. (Article 4)
17. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women, G.A. Res. 34/180, U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N.
Doc. A/34/180, entered into force September 3, 1981. (Articles 1, 6)
18. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment, Annex to G.A. Res. 39/46, reprinted in 23 ILM
1027 (1984).
19. Convention on the Rights of the Child, G.A. Res. 44/25, annex, 44
U.N. GAOR Supp. No. 49 at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into
force September 2, 1990. (Articles 34, 37, 38, 39)
B. UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS:
GENERAL ASSEMBLY
1. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, U.N. Doc.
A/48/49 (1993).
2. Proposals for Consideration in the Preparation of a Draft, United
Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, U.N. A/CONF.177/L.1, May 24,
1995.
3. General Exchange of Views on the Second Review and Appraisal of the
Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 - The extent to which gender
concerns have been included in the activities of the United Nations
human rights mechanisms - Report by the Secretary-General, United
Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, U.N. A/CONF.177/9, August
21, 1995.
4. Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children: Impact of Armed
Conflict on Children, U.N. Doc. A/51/306/Add.1, September 9, 1996.
5. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights,
U.N. Doc. A/51/36, October 18, 1996. (re: equality and
non-discrimination of women).
6. Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children: Impact of Armed
Conflict on Children, U.N. Doc. A/51/306, August 26, 1996.
SECRETARY-GENERAL
1. Rights of the Child: Impact of Armed Conflict on Children - Report
of the Secretary-General, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1996/110 and Add. 1 (March
11, 1996), February 5, 1996.
2. Integrating the Human Rights of Women Throughout the United Nations
System-Report of the Secretary-General, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1997/40,
December 20, 1996.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Commission on Human Rights
1. Preliminary report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on violence
against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy,
in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/45, U.N.
Doc. E/CN.4/1995/42, November 22, 1994.
2. The elimination of violence against women - Commission on Human
Rights, Commission on Human Rights Res. 1995/85.
3. Systematic rape and sexual slavery during periods of armed
conflict, The Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and
Protection of Minorities, U.N. Res. 1995/14, August 18, 1995.
4. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its
causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in
accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/85, U.N.
Doc. E/CN.4/1996/53/, February 2, 1996 and Add. 2.
5. Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Preliminary report of the Special
Rapporteur on the situation of systematic rape, sexual slavery and
slavery-like practices during periods of armed conflict, Ms. Linda
Chavez, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/26, July 16, 1996.
6. Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Report of the Working Group on
Contemporary Forms of Slavery on its twenty-first session:
Chairperson-Rapporteur, Mrs. Halima Embarek Warzazi, U.N. Doc.
E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/246, July 19, 1996.
7. The elimination of violence against women - Commission on Human
Rights, Commission on Human Rights Res. 1996/49.
8. Systematic rape and sexual slavery during periods of armed
conflict, The Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and
Protection of Minorities, U.N. Res. 1996/11, August 23, 1996.
9. The elimination of violence against women - Commission on Human
Rights, Commission on Human Rights Res. 1997/44.
10. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its
causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, U.N. Doc.
E/CN.4/1997/47, February 12, 1997.
11. Letter dated 21 March 1997 from the Director of the United Nations
Development Fund for Women addressed to the Chairman of the Commission
on Human Rights, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1997/131, April 3, 1997.
OTHER UNITED NATIONS ORGANS AND TREATY-BASED BODIES
1. Note on Refugee Women and International Protection (submitted by
the High Commissioner), U.N. Doc. EC/SCP/59, August 28, 1990.
2. Information Note on UNHCR's Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee
Women (submitted by the High Commissioner), U.N. Doc. EC/SCP/67, July
22, 1991.
3. Progress Report on the Implementation of the UNHCR Guidelines on
the Protection of Refugee Women, U.N. Doc. EC/SCP/74, July 22, 1992.
4. Report of the Working Group on Refugee Women and Refugee Children,
U.N. Doc. UC/SCP/85, June 29, 1994.
5. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,
General Recommendation 19, Violence Against Women, U.N. Doc.
HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 84 (1994).
6. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,
General Recommendation 7, Resources, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 75
(1994).
7. The State of the World Population 1997 - The Right to Choose:
Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health, United Nations Population
Fund, 1997.
C. SCHOLARSHIP ANALYSIS:
1. Askin, Kelly Dawn , War Crimes Against Women - Prosecution in
International War Crimes Tribunals, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
(1997).
2. Blatt, Debrah, Recognizing Rape as a Method of Torture, 19 Rev. L.
& Social Change 821 (1992).
3. Brownmiller, Susan, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape, Secker &
Warburg (1975).
4. Clark, Roger S. and Madeleine Sann (ed), The Prosecution of
International Crimes, Transaction Publishers (1996).
5. Cook, Rebecca, International Human Rights Law Concerning Women:
Cases Notes and Comments, 23 Vand.J. Transnat'l L. 779 (1990).
6. Cook, Rebecca, State Responsibility for Violations of Women's Human
Rights, 7 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 125 (1994).
7. Cook, Rebecca J. (ed), Human Rights of Women, National and
International Perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press (1994).
8. Copelon, Rhonda, Surfacing Gender: Re-Engraving Crimes against
Women in Humanitarian Law, 5 Hastings Women's L.J. 243 (1994).
9. Cotler, Irwin, The Human Rights Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
Dance on the Dialectic, 44 U.N.B. L.J. 357 (1995).
10. Culliton, Katherine M., Finding a Mechanism to Enforce Women's
Right to State Protection from Domestic Violence in the Americas,
Harvard Int'l Law J., No. 2 (1993).
11. Dennis, Michael J., Current Development: The Fifty-Second Session
of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 91 A.J.I.L. 167
(1997).
12. Fairstein, Linda A., Sexual Violence: Our War Against Rape,
William Morrow and Co. (1993).
13. Goldstein, Anne Tierney, Recognizing Forced Impregnation as a War
Crime Under International Law, The Center for Reproductive Law &
Policy, New York (1993).
14. Levy, Arden B., ,u>International Prosecution of Rape in Warfare:
Nondiscriminatory Recognition and Enforcement, 4 UCLA Women's L.J. 255
(1994).
15. Meron Theodor, Human Rights in Internal Strife: Their
International Protection, Grotius Publications Limited, Cambridge
(1987).
16. Meron, Theodor, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary
Law, Claredon Press, Oxford (1989).
17. Meron, Theodor, Rape as a Crime Under International Humanitarian
Law, 87 A.J.I.L. 424 (1993).
18. Morris, Madelin, By Force of Arms: Rape, War and Military Culture,
45 Duke L.J. 651 (1996).
19. Thomas, Dorothy Q. and Regan E. Ralph, Rape in War: Challenging
the Tradition of Impunity, SAIS Review (1994).
20. Tutorow, Norman E. (ed), War Crimes, War Criminals and War Crimes
Trials, Greenwood Press (1986).
21. Yusuf, Sedua, Venetis, Gottlieb and Davis, Symposium: Violence
Against Women: International Solutions Symposium, 18 Women's Rights L.
Rep. 263 (1997).
D. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS:
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
1. Amnesty International, Rape and Sexual Abuse: Torture and
Ill-Treatment of Women in Detention, January 1992.
2. Amnesty International, Human Rights are Women's Rights, Amnesty
International Women Campaign Report 1995.
3. Amnesty International, 15 Steps to Protect Women's Human Rights,
1995.
4. Amnesty International, The Human Rights of Women: A Reference Guide
to Official United Nations Documents, 1996.
5. Amnesty International , International Women's Day: Amnesty
International calls on all governments to draw up national plans of
action on women's rights, News Release, 1996.
6. Amnesty International, 1997 UN Commission on Human Rights - 50
years old: The Human Rights of Women, 1997.
7. Amnesty International, Women "Invisible" Victims of Human Rights
Violations, News Release.
8. Amnesty International, Rape: An Act of Torture,
9. Amnesty International, Women: doubly disadvantaged, Amnesty
International Refugee Campaign Briefing.
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
1. Human Rights Watch, 9/3/95 Global Report on Women's Human Rights,
Human Rights Watch Women's Project, 1995.
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT
1. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
Report of the NGO Expert Meeting on the Mandate of the Special
Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences,
November 1994.
2. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
4th World Conference on Women in Beijing: Libertas--ICHRDD Newsletter,
February 1996.
3. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, A
Confrontational U.N. Commission on Human Rights: Libertas--ICHRDD
Newsletter, Summer 1997.
4. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
International Experts Will Meet in Montreal to Assess the Mandate of
the U.N. Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women: Press Release,
September 2, 1997.
OTHER NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
1. Krill, Francoise , The Protection of Women in International
Humanitarian Law, International Review of the Red Cross, no. 249,
p.337 - 363, November 1, 1985.
2. National Organization for Women Legal Defense and Education Fund,
NOW LDEF Position Statement On Proposed Victim's Rights Amendment,
1997.
3. Women and War, International Review of the Red Cross, August 1,
1995.
E. MEDIA AND OTHER FACTUAL ACCOUNTS:
1. Bhimji, Altaf Ali , Rape and War,
2. Headline: Women: Beijing Meeting Urged to Take Action to Halt Rape
in War, Inter Press Service, September 1995.
3. Leopold, Evelyn , Anti-women violence condemned by all, but
tolerated, Reuters North American Wire, August 30, 1995.
4. Nicodemus, Thomas D. , A Brief Case for Declaring Rape a War Crime:
Berlin 1945, The IAIR Monthly Hypermedia Magazine, Vol. 2 Issue 4,
April 1, 1996.
5. Rape in War, http://embassy.org/nona/rape.in.war.html.
6. Women: U.N. Launches Fund to Prevent Gender Violence, InterPress
Service, June 17, 1997.
II. SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT:
FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
A. UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS:
GENERAL ASSEMBLY
1. Rape and abuse of women in the areas of armed conflict in the
former Yugoslavia, U.N. Doc. A/RES/49/205, December 23, 1994.
2. Rape and abuse of women in the areas of armed conflict in the
former Yugoslavia, U.N. Doc. A/RES/50/192, December 22, 1995.
3. Rape and abuse of women in the areas of armed conflict in the
former Yugoslavia, U.N. Doc. A/RES/51/115, December 12, 1996.
SECURITY COUNCIL
1. United Nations: Security Council Resolution 827 (1993) Establishing
the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, U.N. Doc.
S/RES/827 (1994).
2. Final Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to
Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), U.N. Doc. S/1994/674 and Add.2
(Annexes II, IX, IX(A), IX(B), May 27, 1994.
3. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1034 (1995), U.N. Doc.
S/RES/1034 (1995).
SECRETARY-GENERAL
1. Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Security
Council Resolution 808 (1993), U.N. Doc. S/25704, May 3, 1993. Annex,
Statute of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.
2. Human Rights Questions: Human Rights Situations and Reports of
Special Rapporteur and Representatives - Rape and abuse of women in
the areas of armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia - Report of
Secretary General, U.N. Doc. A/50/329, August 4, 1995.
3. Human Rights Questions: Human Rights Situations and Reports of
Special Rapporteur and Representatives - Rape and abuse of women in
the areas of armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia - Report of the
Secretary General, U.N. Doc. A/51/557, October 25, 1996.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Commission on Human Rights
1. Second periodic report on the situation of human rights in the
territory of the former Yugoslavia submitted by Mr. Tadeusz
Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights,
pursuant to paragraph 32 of Commission resolution 1993/7 of 23
February 1993, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1994/4.
2. Troisieme rapport periodique sur la situation des droits de l'homme
dans le territoire de l'ex-Yougoslavie, soumis par M. Tadeusz
Mazowiecki, Rapporteur special de la Commission des droits de l'homme,
en application du paragraphe 32 de la resolution 1993/7 du 23 fevrier
1993, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1994/6.
3. Fourth periodic report on the situation of human rights in the
territory of the former Yugoslavia submitted by Mr. Tadeusz
Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights,
pursuant to paragraph 32 of Commission resolution 1993/7 of 23
February 1993, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1994/8.
4. Fifth periodic report on the situation of human rights in the
territory of the former Yugoslavia submitted by Mr. Tadeusz
Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights,
pursuant to paragraph 32 of Commission resolution 1993/7 of 23
February 1993, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1994/47.
OTHER UNITED NATIONS ORGANS AND TREATY-BASED BODIES
1. Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Bosnia and
Herzegovina, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.14, December 28, 1992.
2. Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination Against Women: Bosnia and Herzegovina, U.N. Doc.
A/49/38, paras. 732-757, April 4, 1994.
3. Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination Against Women: Yugoslavia, U.N. Doc. A/49/38, paras.
758-776, April 4, 1994.
4. Reports of States Parties: Croatia, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/CRO/SP.1,
December 12, 1994.
International Court of Justice
1. Case Concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and
Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v.
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) ), 1993 I.C.J. 3, 1993.
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
1. Indictment: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former
Yugoslavia: The Prosecutor of the Tribunal Against Radovan Karadzic
and Ratko Mladic,
gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org:7030/00/cases/Karadzic/950724-Karadzic-indictment,
July 24, 1995.
2. Indictment: The International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia:
The Prosecutor of the Tribunal Against Zejnil Delalic, Zdravko Mucic,
Hazim Delic and Esad Landzo, Indictment 21-03-96,
http://www.un.org/icty/21-03-96.htm.
3. Indictment: The International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia:
The Prosecutor of the Tribunal Against Simo Drljaca and Milan
Kovacevic, Initial Indictment IT-97-24-I,
http://www.un.org/icty/kovacevic.htm.
B. SCHOLARSHIP ANALYSIS:
1. Akhavan, Payam, Punishing War Crimes in the Former Yugoslavia: A
Critical Juncture for the New World Order, 15 Human Rts. Q. 262
(1993).
2. Aydelott, Danise , Mass Rape During War: Prosecuting Bosnian
Rapists Under International Law, 7 Emory Int'l L. Rev. 585 (1993).
3. Allen, Beverly, Rape and Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in
Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia, (University of Minnesota Press)
(1996).
4. Chesterman, Simon, Never Again...And Again: Law, Order and the
Gender of War Crimes in Bosnia and Beyond, 22 Yale J. Int'l L. 299
(1997).
5. Cleiren, C.P.M. and M.E.M. Tijssen, Substantive and Procedural
Issues: Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Assault in the Armed Conflict
in the Former Yugoslavia: Legal, Procedural and Evidentiary Issues, 5
Crim. L.F. 471 (1994).
6. Denno, Debrah W., Why Rape is Different, 63 Fordham L.Rev. 25
(1994).
7. Etienne, Margareth, Addressing Gender-Based Violence in an
International Context, 18 Harv. Womens' L.J. 139 (1995).
8. Green, Jennifer et al., Affecting the Rules for the Prosecution of
Rape and Other Gender-Based Violence Before the International Criminal
Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: A Feminist Proposal and Critique,
5 Hastings Women's L.J. 171 (1994).
9. Healey, Sharon A., Prosecuting Rape Under the Statute of the War
Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 21 Brook. J. Int'l L. 327
(1995).
10. Kohn, Elizabeth A., Rape as a Weapon of War: Women's Human Rights
During the Dissolution of Yugoslavia, 24 Golden Gate U. L.Rev. 199
(1994).
11. MacKinnon, Catharine, Rape, Genocide and Women's Human Rights, 17
Harv. Women's L.J. 5 (1994).
12. Malone, Linda A., Beyond Bosnia and in re Kasinga: A Feminist
Perspective of Recent Developments in Protecting Women From Sexual
Violence, 14 B.U. Int'l L.J. 319 (1996).
13. Ni Aolain, Fionnuala, Book Review: The Entrenchment of Systematic
Abuse: Mass Rape in Former Yugoslavia; Mass Rape: The War Against
Women in the Former Yugoslavia, 8 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 285 (1995).
14. Ni Aolain, Fionnuala, Radical Rules: The Effects of Evidential and
Procedural Rules on the Regulation of Sexual Violence in War, 60 Alb.
L. Rev. 883 (1997).
15. Niarchos, Catherine N., Women, War and Rape: Challenges Facing the
International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Human Rights
Quarterly 17.4, 649-690 (1995).
16. Pratt, Kathleen M. and Laurel E. Fletcher, Time for Justice: The
Case for International Prosecutions of Rape and Gender-Based Violence
in the Former Yugoslavia, 9 Berkeley Women's L.J. 77 (1994).
17. Ray, Amy E., The Shame of It: Gender-Based Terrorism in the Former
Yugoslavia and the Failure of International Human Rights Law to
Comprehend the Injuries, 46 Am. U.L. Rev. 793 (1997).
18. Splittgerber, Scott, Note and Comment: The Need for Greater
Regional Protection for the Human Rights of Women: The Cases of Rape
in Bosnia and Guatemala, 15 Wis. Int'l L.J. 185 (1996).
19. Stiglmayer, Alexandra (ed) and Marion Faber (trans), Mass Rape:
The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, University of Nebraska
Press.
C. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS:
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
1. Human Rights Watch, Doe v. Karadzic, Brief Amici Curiae of Human
Rights Watch.
OTHER NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
1. An African Women's Network, Asian Women's Human Rights Council,
Autonomous Women's House, B.a.B.e., C.E.A.D.E.L., Center for Women's
War Victims, Center for Women's Global Leadership, Centro de la Mujer
Peruana Flora Tristan, Coalition Against Trafficing in Women-Asia
Pacific, Committee on Feminism and International Law of the
International Law Association, Coordination of Women's Advocacy,
Dcutsher Frauenrat e.V., Infoteka, Isis International, Korean Council
for the Women Drafted in Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, and
interested organizations, Doe v. Karadzic, Brief Amici Curae of
Alliances.
2. Women for Women in Bosnia, Rape: A Strategy of War in the Former
Yugoslavia, http://www.embassy.org/wwbosnia/accounts.html.
3. Women for Women in Bosnia, Combined Federal Campaign #2938,
http://www.embassy.org/wwbosnia/accounts.html.
D. UNITED STATES DOCUMENTS:
1. Kadic v. Karadzic, 70 F.3d 232 (1995).
2. Karadzic v. Kadic, 116 S.Ct. 2524 (1996).
3. Doe v. Karadzic, U.S. App. 1995 http://diana.law.yale.edu.
4. Supplemental Brief of Appellee, Radovan Karadzic for cases 94-9035
and 94-9069, http://diana.law.yale.edu.
E. MEDIA AND OTHER FACTUAL ACCOUNTS:
1. Moorehead, Caroline, Rape as a weapon of modern warfare: Bosnia
highlights the growing use of sexual abuse as military strategy, The
Independent, August 6, 1995.
2. Neuffer, Elisabeth, Gender Issues in ICC, ICTY and ICTR, TWATCH
(1997).
3. Rape Defined as War Crime by Tribunal, Feminist News, June 28,
1996.
4. Tiggelaar, Frank, Sexual Assault Committee, TWATCH (1997).
F. FOREIGN:
1. Disposizioni in materia di cooperazione con il Tribunale
internazionale competente per gravi violazioni del diritto umanitario
commesse nei territori della ex Jugoslavia, Disposizioni del decreto -
legge 28 dicembre 1993 n. 544.
III. SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT:
RWANDA
A. UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS:
GENERAL ASSEMBLY
1. Situation of human rights in Rwanda, U.N. Doc. A/RES/51/114, March
7, 1997.
SECURITY COUNCIL
1. United Nations Security Council Resolution 935 (1994) Establishing
the Commission of Experts for Rwanda, S.C. Res. 935, July 1, 1994.
2. Preliminary report of the Independent Commission of Experts
established in accordance with Security Council Resolution 935 (1994),
U.N. Doc. S/1994/1125, Annex 4, October 4, 1994.
3. Final Report of the Commission of Experts on Rwanda, U.N. Doc.
S/1994/1405, Annex.
4. United Nations: Security Council Resolution 955 (1994) Establishing
the International Tribunal for Rwanda, 33 I.L.M. 1598, 1994.
SECRETARY-GENERAL
1. Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations
Assistance Mission to Rwanda, U.N. Doc. S/1994/470, April 20, 1994.
2. Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Rwanda, U.N.
Doc. S/1994/565, May 13, 1994.
3. Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Rwanda, U.N.
Doc. S/1994/640, May 31, 1994.
4. Letter Dated 19 June 1994 from the Secretary-General Addressed to
the President of the Security Council, U.N. Doc. S/1994/728, June 20,
1994.
5. Letter Dated 2 July 1994 from the Secretary-General Addressed to
the President of the Security Council, U.N. Doc. S/1994/798, July 6,
1994.
6. Report of the Secretary-General on the establishment of the
Commission of Experts Pursuant to Paragraph 1 of the Security Council
Resolution 935 (1994) of July 1, 1994, U.N. Doc. A/1994/879, July 26,
1994.
7. Letter Dated 9 December 1994 from the Secretary-General Addressed
to the President of the Security Council, U.N. Doc. S/1994/1405,
December 9, 1994.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Commission on Human Rights
1. Report of the situation of human rights in Rwanda submitted by Mr.
Rene Degni-Segui, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human
Rights, under paragraph 20 of resolution S-3/1 of 25 May 1994, U.N.
Doc. E/CN.4/1996/68, January 29, 1996.
2. Report of the situation of human rights in Rwanda submitted by Mr.
Rene Degni-Segui, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human
Rights, under paragraph 20 of resolution S-3/1 of 25 May 1994, U.N.
Doc. E/CN.4/1997/61, January 26, 1997.
3. Coordination meeting on the human rights situation in the Great
Lakes region, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1996/69, February 15, 1996.
4. Genocide Trials to 30 June 1997: Status report as of 15 July 1997,
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, U.N. Doc.
HRFOR/STRPT/52/1/15, July 1997.
OTHER UNITED NATIONS ORGANS AND TREATY-BASED BODIES
1. Update on the Humanitarian Situation in Rwanda, U.N. Department of
Humanitarian Affairs, No. 8, May 8, 1995.
2. Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination Against Women: Rwanda, U.N. Doc. A/51/38, paras.
301-331, May 9, 1996.
3. Africa: Report of UNCHR, 51st session, by the UN Representative,
Jan Bauer for Article 19.
4. Africa: Report of UNCHR, 52nd session, by the UN Representative,
Jan Bauer for Article 19.
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
1. Indictment: The International Tribunal for Rwanda: The Prosecutor
of the Tribunal Against Jean Paul Akayesu, Initial Indictment
IT-96-4-1, Coalition for International Justice,
http://www.wcw.org/ictr/suspects/Jean-Paul_Akayesu.html.
B. SCHOLARSHIP ANALYSIS:
1. Goodwin, Jan, Rwanda: Justice Denied, On the Issues, Fall 1997.
2. Rosenstock, Robert, The Forty-Eighth Session of the International
Law Commission, 91 A.J.I.L. 365, 1997.
3. The United Nations and Rwanda 1993 - 1996; The United Nations Blue
Book Series, Vol. X, (Department of Public Information, N.Y.) (1996).
4. Wang, Mariann Meier, Article: The International Tribunal for
Rwanda: Opportunities for Clarification, Opportunities for Impact, 27
Colum. Human Rights L. Rev. 177.
C. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS:
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
1. Amnesty International, Rwanda: Mass murder by government supporters
and troops in April and May 1994, 1994.
2. Amnesty International, Rwanda: reports of killings and abductions
by the Rwandese Patriotic Army, April - August 1994, 1994.
3. Amnesty International, Rwanda: Crying out for Justice, 1995.
4. Amnesty International, Rwanda: two years after the genocide-human
rights in the balance: An open letter to President Pasteur Bizimungu,
Amnesty International Country Report, April 4, 1996.
5. Amnesty International, Justice for Rwanda and Former Yugoslavia
Undermined by Failure to Provide Adequate Support for the Ad Hoc
Tribunals, May 6, 1996.
6. Amnesty International, Rwanda: Ending the Silence, Amnesty
International Country Report, September 25, 1997.
7. Amnesty International, Rwanda: Amnesty Delegates Back From Rwanda
Report New Wave of Human Rights Abuses, February 19, 1997.
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
1. Human Rights Watch/Africa, Genocide in Rwanda April - May 1994,
vol. 6, no. 4, May 1994.
2. Human Rights Watch, Systematic Sexual Violence Against Rwandan
Women, 1996.
3. Human Rights Watch, 24 September 1996 Rwanda's Genocide: Human
Rights Abuses Against Women, 1996.
4. Human Rights Watch, Rwanda: Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during
the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath, September 1996.
5. Human Rights Watch, 20 February 1997 Rwanda: Report on
International Criminal Tribunal Welcomed; implementation of
recommendations urged, 1997.
THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT
1. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
Focus on Rwandan Women: Libertas - ICHRDD Newsletter, December 1996.
2. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
Defense of Women's Rights - 1996 to 1997: Activities.
3. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
Women's Human Rights in Conflict Situations, July 31, 1997.
4. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
Monitor on the Gender-Related Crimes Prosecution at the International
Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Libertas--ICHRDD Newsletter.
5. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
The Year in Africa.
6. International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development,
Representatives from Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi to Discuss Human Rights
in the Region.
OTHER NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
1. Advocats sans Frontieres, Justice pour tous au Rwanda, December 3,
1996.
2. African Rights, Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance, August 1995.
D. UNITED STATES DOCUMENTS:
1. Mushikiwabo v. Barayagwiza, United States District Court for the
Southern District of N.Y., 1996 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 4409.
2. U.S. Department of State, Draft legislation submitted in 1995 by
the United States Departments of State and Justice concerning the
surrender of suspects and judicial assistance to the International
Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, World
Federalist Association [[email protected]].
3. U.S. Department of State, Rwanda: Country Report on Human Rights
Practices for 1995, March 1996.
4. U.S. Department of State, Rwanda: Country Report on Human Rights
Practices for 1996, January 1997.
E. MEDIA AND OTHER FACTUAL ACCOUNTS:
1. African Wars - Blood Curdling, The Economist, March 1996.
2. Askin, Kelly, Gender Issues in the ICC, ICTY and ICTR.
3. Burundi. Twin horror, The Economist, July 1996.
4. Prosecuting evil: A Canadian judge pursues international war
criminals, Maclean's, February 24, 1997.
5. Ranck, Jody, Gender Issues in the ICC, ICTY and ICTR, TWATCH
(1997).
6. Rape Defined as a War Crime by Tribunal, Reuters, June 27, 1996.
7. Rape Defined as a War Crime by Tribunal, The Feminist News, June
28, 1996.
8. Rwanda: Human Rights Watch Chronicles Abuses of Rwanda's Women,
Africa News, September 25, 1996.
9. Rwanda genocide tribunal to hold workshop on violent sex crimes,
Deutsche Presse-Agentur, October 3, 1997.
10. Rwanda Rape Victims Ignored, Feminist Majority Newsletter, Vol. 8,
Num.4.
11. Rights panel probes rape as wartime weapon, Agence France Presse,
August 7, 1996.
12. Sexual crimes to be added to Rwanda human rights offences, Agence
France Presse, October 6, 1997.
13. Tutsi Women Bear Children, Scars of Hutus, New York Times News
Service, September 24, 1996.
14. U.N. Investigator Exposes Rape as a War Crime, The Feminist News,
August 5, 1996.
15. United States and Africa: Africa Policy: Questions for Candidates,
Africa News, October 17, 1996.
F. FOREIGN:
1. Reporters without Borders, Radio Television Libre des Mille
Collines Transcription and translation of the morning broadcast on the
6th of April 1994.
IV. SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN ARMED CONFLICT:
OTHER CONFLICTS
A. UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS:
SECURITY COUNCIL
1. Resolution 917, U.N. Doc. S/RES/917 (1994). (re: human rights
violations in Haiti).
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Commission on Human Rights
1. Report on the mission to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea,
the Republic of Korea and Japan on the issue of military sexual
slavery in wartime: Democratic People's Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc.
E/CN.4/1996/53/Add.1, January 4, 1996.
2. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its
causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, Addendum, Report on
the mission to Poland on the issue of trafficking and forced
prostitution of women(24 May to 1 June 1996), U.N. Doc.
E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.1, December 10, 1996.
3. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its
causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, Addendum, Report on
the mission to Brazil on the issue of domestic violence(15-26 July
1996), U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.2, January 21, 1997.
4. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its
causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, Addendum, U.N. Doc.
E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.4, January 30, 1997.
5. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its
causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, Addendum, Report on
the mission to South Africa on the issue of rape in the community
(11-18 October 1996), U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.3, February 12,
1997.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimaination Against Women
1. Report of UN Agencies/Organs: Information Submitted by UNESCO:
Canada, Philippines, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Slovenia,
Turkey, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/1997/3/Add.3, October 28, 1996.
B. SCHOLARSHIP ANALYSIS:
1. Basic Facts on the Nanjing Massacre and the Tokyo War Crimes Trial,
(New Jersey Hong Kong Network),
http://www.cnd.org:8009/NJMassacre/nj.html#CRIMES.
2. Copelon, Rhonda , Symposium: Women's Rights as International Human
Rights: Women and War Crimes, 69 St. John's L. Rev. 61, 1995.
3. Goldberg, Pamela and Nancy Kelly, Recent Developments:
International Human Rights and Violence Against Women, 6 Harv. Hum.
Rts. J. 195, 1993.
4. Piccigallo, Philip R., Book Review: The Japanese on Trial. Allied
War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945 - 1951, 75 A.J.I.L. 396, 1981.
5. Stuhldreher, Karen , State Rape: Representations of Rape in Viet
Nam, Viet Nam Generation Big Book, Vol. 5, No. 1-4, March 1994.
C. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS:
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
1. Amnesty International, Women in Afghanistan: A Human Rights
Catastrophe, 1995.
2. Amnesty International, Mexico: Overcoming fear: human rights
violations against women in Mexico, March 1996.
3. Amnesty International, Pakistan: Women's human rights remain a dead
letter-No progress towards the realization of women's rights after the
ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Women, Amnesty International Country Report,
March 1997.
4. Amnesty International, Women in the Front Line.
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
1. Human Rights Watch, 11/24/95 Violence Against Women in South Africa,
1995.
2. Human Rights Watch/Africa, South Africa: Violence Against Women and
the Medico-Legal System, vol. 9, no. 4(A), August 1997.
OTHER NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
1. Bakshi, P.M., The Offence of Rape and Certain Medico-Legal Aspects,
National Commission for Women, 1994.
D. UNITED STATES DOCUMENTS:
1. Congressional Record -- House of Representatives Proceedings and
Debates of the 102nd Congress, First Session,January 10, 1991 -- The
Crisis in the Middle East, 137 Cong. Rec. H175-03.
2. Congressional Record -- Senate Proceedings and Debates of the 102nd
Congress, First Session,January 11, 1991 -- The Persian Gulf Crisis,
137 Cong. Rec. S183-06.
E. MEDIA AND OTHER FACTUAL ACCOUNTS:
1. South Africa: Signs of Crimes Against Women, Africa News, August 1,
1997.
2. U.N.: Papua New Guinea foreign minister appeals for support in
Bougainville conflict - Commission on Human Rights receives updates on
Haiti, Somalia, Guatemala, Cambodia and violence against women, M2
Presswire, April 8, 1997.
3. Violence Against Women, The Feminist News,
4. What is Justice for a Rape Victim?,
http://www.womensnet.org/onissues/w9chesler.html.
F. FOREIGN:
1. Cyprus v. Turkey, 4 EHRR 482 (1982), July 10, 1976.
2. Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Human
Rights, Communication Respecting the Violations of Human Rights of
Haitian Women, http://www.yale.edu/dianaweb/briefsoaswo.htm.

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